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MLV Textile & Engg. College

Textile Norms

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Units and Conversion
FIBER
YARN COUNTS
COUNT CONVERSION
UNITS CONVERSATION 
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN COTTON TEXTILE MILLS
MIXING
BLOW ROOM
CARDING  
DRAW FRAME
SPEED FRAME
YARN
WINDING
DOUBLING

bullet.gif (298 bytes) FIBER  Top
          Micronaire value (cotton)
          Micrograms/ inch. The average weight of one inch length of fiber, expressed in micrograms (0.000001g), which is approximately equivalent to, Micronaire Readings defined by A.S.T.M
          Denier(Man-made fiber)
          Weight in grams per 9000 meters of fiber
          Micron(wool)
          Fineness expressed as fiber diameter in microns             (0.001mm).
           Conversions
           Denier = 0.354 * micronaire value
           Micronaire value = 2.824 * Denier
           HVI
           SF = 50.01 - (0.766 * 2.5%SL) - (50%SL *81.48) 

         Where SL is in inches

       Tolerable Cotton Proverty CV
bullet.gif (298 bytes) YARN COUNTS Top
           (A) Indirect system
               English count (Ne)
              Number of 840 yards per pound.
              French count (Nf)
              Number of 1000 meters per kilogram.
              worsted count
             Number of 560 yards per pound.
              Woolen cut Scllnen Lea (wet spun)
              Number of 300 yards per pound.
            (B) Direct System
               Tex count
               Weight in grams per 1000 meters
              Weight in pounds per 14,400 yards (Spyndle)
                Denier
              Weight in grams per 9000 metres
bullet.gif (298 bytes) COUNT CONVERSION Top
       Calculator
        1. English count=
             French count * 1.1810
             Metric count *  0.5905
             Worsted count * 0.6667
             Wollen  cut 8c Linen Lea * 0.3571
             5905 * Tex count
             5315 * Denier
             17.14 * jute count
        2. Metric count=
             English count * 1.693
             French Count * 2.0
             Worsted count * 1.129
             Woolen cut 8c linen lea * 0.6047
             1000 * Tex count
             9000 * Denier
             29.03 * Jute count
        4. Tex count
            590.5 * English count
            500 * French count
            1000 * Metric count
            885.8 * worsted count
            1654 * Wolen cut and linen lea
            0.1111 * denier
            34.45 * jute count
          5. Denier
            5315 * English count
            4500 * French count
            9000 * Metric count
            7972 * worsted count
            14880 * woolen cut and linen lea
            9 * tex
            310 * jute count
bullet.gif (298 bytes) UNITS CONVERSATION  Top
Calculator
One Pound    = 16.00 ounces One Kilogram =1000.0 grams
                     = 7000 grains =2.2046 pound
                     = 453.59 grains =35.274 ounces
                     = 0.4536 kilogram =15432.0 grains
One Ounce    =    437.50 grains One gram =1000.0 milligram
                     = 28.350 grains =0.03527 ounces
=15.432 grains
One grain     = 0.00229 One Milligram =0.0154 grain
                      = 0.0648 gram
                      = 64.8 milligram
LINEAR MEASURES
Calculator
One yard      = 3.0 feet One meter = 100.0 centimeter
                   = 36.0 inches = 3.281 feet
                   =  91.44 centimeters = 39.37 inches
                   = 0.9144 metre =1.0936 yards
One Foot      =  0.3333 yards One millimeter =0.0334 inches
                   = 12.0 inches One inch =0.0278 yard
                   = 30.48 centimeters =0.0833 foot
                   = 0.3048 meter =25.4 milimeters
=2.54 centimeters
=0.0254 meter.
bullet.gif (298 bytes) TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY IN COTTON TEXTILE MILLS Top
Department

Relative Humidity %

Temperature  C (F)
Min. Max. Min. Max
Mixing  Room 60 65 27 (80) 33 (92)
Blow Room 50 55 27 (80) 35 (95)
Card Frame 50 55 27 (80) 35 (95)
Ring Frame 53 58 30 (80) 35 (95)
Winding 60 65 27 (80) 33 (92)
bullet.gif (298 bytes) MIXING Top  
 
bullet.gif (298 bytes) BLOW ROOM Top  
1.        Cleaning efficiency percentage: (CE%)
           (Trash in mixing - Trash in Lap * 100) / Trash in mixing
2.         Beating / inch  
(Beater rpm * no. of arms) / (Feed roller rpm * (22/7) *  Feed roll diameter in inch)
EXAMPLE:
(Beater speed = 800; Arms = 3; Feed roller rpm = 10; Feed roller diameter =2.5"
Beats / inch = (800 * 30) / (10 * 3.14 * 2.5 ") = 30 Approx.
3.           Standard pressure when spinning cotton and synthetic.
Synthetic Cotton
On rack heads 300 Kg / cm2 300 Kg/cm2
On Calendar Roller 3000Kg / cm2 2700 Kg /cm2
Pulling Device 130Kg / cm2 130 Kg / cm2
4.         Expected standard efficiency %
            For Auto Doffing is 88 to 90%  (Allowing for mixing change and cleaning)
5.        Lap Tolerance Limits = (Avg. Lap Wt. + - (2 * C.V %* Nominal Wt.))/ 100
Coefficient of variation of lap Norms
One yard Good Avg.
Full Lap 0.70 1.0
Wrapping 1.2 2.0
6. Norms of wrapping C.V 
Satisfactory values of % C.V. for wrapping in Preparatory & spinning
Wrapping Length in m %C.V U%
Blow room lap 1 1
Card silver 10 2.0 3.5
Finisher Drawing Sliver 1 0.85 2.2
Inter  5 1.5 3.3
Yarn up to 60 Ne 100 1.2
Yarn 60 Ne and above 100 1.5
Yarn up to 60 Ne (Strength CV) 3
Yarn 60 Ne and above (Strength CV) 4.5
bullet.gif (298 bytes) CARDING   Top
1. Cleaning Efficiency (%)
 (( Trash in Lap - Trash in Silver) / Trash in Lap)*100
2. Twist inserted / inch in sliver
 (rpm of can plate ) / Surface speed of calendar Roller
 
bullet.gif (298 bytes) DRAW FRAME Top
1. Roller setting for 3 Roller Drawing
 Front Zone = AFIS 5% Length Back zone = AFIS 5% + 4m.m.
2. C.V of  Sliver = C/ Sqrt N
C =C.V of creel sliver ; N = Number of slivers fed
 
bullet.gif (298 bytes) SPEED FRAME Top
1 Coils per inch
For Coarse Roving = T.P I * 10 
For fine Roving =T.P I * 13 
2 Thumb Rule for Layers / cm. =5.12 / sqrt (Roving hank)
bullet.gif (298 bytes) YARN Top
1. Natural variation = CV % * 2
   Let CV = 1.2 ; count = 30 
   (1.2 * 2 * 30 ) / 100 = 0.72
   30 +- 0.72 Ne
2. Ring Yarns

     Single yarn strength in gram * 0.264 = lea strength of 120 yards in Lbs.

    Rotor Yarns

     (i) Cotton RKM = 0.00525 * CSP + 0.842

     (ii) Cotton Blended RKM = 0.00537 * CSP + 0.943

     (iii) Man Made RKM = 0.00561 * CSP + 1.079

 
3. Coils / inch (yarn gap should be equal to half the diameter of yarn between      consecutive coils) By Thumb Rule = 13.3  * sqrt (count)
4 General formula for tape Width
Tape width = Face width of spindle Wharve - 4mm
bullet.gif (298 bytes) WINDING Top
1. Yarn quality Factor = Clearing Efficiency / Knot factor
2. Pre clearer Gauge at winding (carded yarn) 4.0 * yarn diameter
Pre clearer Gauge at winding (combed yarn) 5 * yarn diameter
3. Clearing Efficiency=
100 * (Total unwanted Faults Removed by Clearer) / ( Total Number of such faults Present in the yarn)
4. Knot Factor = ( Total number of Clearer cuts) / (Number of unwanted yarn faults removed)
5. Normal Clearing Efficiency and knot Factor
Type of Clearer CE Knot Factor     
Electronic Clearer  80-95 < 1.3     
6. Yarn Tension level
               (1 / 20) * single yarn Strength -- Do not be amazed Just try It
bullet.gif (298 bytes) DOUBLING Top
1. Total imperfection in Double yarn=0.170 * Total imperfection in single yarn
2. Doubling yarn strength = Ring yarn strength * 2.5
3. Double yarn U% = Single yarn U% / sqrt ( No of yarns)
4. Doubling Tension weight in gram  = ( Lea strength in Lb * 4) /15.4

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